Chapter 1: Description of Killing of Madhu and Kaidabha.
1. Markandeya Uvacha:-
Savarni Surya thanayo yo Manu Kadyatheshtama,
Nisamaya Thad uthpathim vistharath gadatho mama.
Makandeya told: –
Please hear from me about the origin of Savarni who is the son of Sun god and the eighth Manu in detail.
(There were fourteen Manus who ruled the world. The seven before Savarni were Swayambhuva, Swarochisha, Uthama, Thapasa, Raivatha, Chakshusha and Vaiwaswatha. Markandeya was the son of Sage Mrukandu and was telling this story to another sage called Bagoori. Some versions have two additional slokas regarding the announcement of Sage Sootha that Jaimini the disciple of Vyasa approached Sage Markandeya and requested him to tell the story of Devi Mahatmya)
2. Maha mayanu bhavena Yadha manwantharadhipa,
Sa Bhabhuva maha bhaga, Savarnisthanayo rave.
Please hear in detail how that very famous and lucky Savarni who was the son of Sun God became the king of four yugas with the blessing of the great goddess in whom the entire world rests.
3. Swarochishanthare poorvam Chaithra vamsa samud bhava,
Suradho Nama Rajabuth samasthe Kshithi mandale.
During ancient times and in the time of Manu Swarochisha, Suradha who belonged to the clan of Chaithras became king of the entire earth. (Swarochisha was the second Manu)
4. Tasya palayatha Samyak praja puthra nivaurasan,
Bhabhuvu sathruvo bhoopaa kola vidwamsina sthatha.
To him who looked after his people like his own sons, the Kola Vidhwamsi kings became enemies
The Kola Vidhwamsi kings might indicate any of the following
Kings belonging to Kola dynasty
Kings from another capital city called Kola
5. Thasya thairabhavadhyuddham athi prabhala dandina,
Nyunairapi sa thairyudhe kolavidwamsibhirjjitha
Though extremely learned in war, he was defeated in a war with the kola vidhwamsi kings who were not experts in war.
6. Thatha swapurmayatho nija desadhipobhavath
Aakrantha sa maha bhaga stai sthadha prabhalaribhi.
Attacked by those famous enemy kings, that great one reached his city and became a king to it. (Being defeated, he lost his kingdom and became the chief of his native city only. )
7. Amathyair bhalibhir dushtai dhurbalasya dhurathmabhi,
Koso bhalam chapahrutham thathrapi swapure satha.
His powerful and bad ministers took away his treasury and army from him who was powerless in his city.
8. Thatho mrugaya vyajena hruthaswamya sa bhoopathi,
Ekaaki, hayamaruhya jagama gahanam vanam.
Afterwards that king, who had lost his kingdom, reached the dark forests alone on a horse under the pretext of hunting.
9. Sa thatrasrama madraksheed dwija varyasya medhasa,
Prasantha swapadhakeernam muni sishyopashobhitham.
There he saw the hermitage of the great Brahmin Sumedhas, which was populated by peaceful animals and was shining, with his disciples.
10. Tasthow kamchit sakalam munina thena sathkrutha
Ithaschethascha vicharam sthasmin munivarasrame.
Under the hospitality of the sage in the hermitage that king lived there for some time traveling here and there.
11. So chinthayathada thatra mamathwakrushta chethana,
Mathpurvai palitham poorvam mayaheenam puram hithath.
Mind attracted by egoism, he thought as follows. That city which was looked after by my ancestors is definitely not mine now.
12. Mad bhrtyai sthaira sad vruthyair dharmatha palyathe na va,
Na jaane sapradhano me soorahasthi sadamadha.
13. Mama vairi vasam yaatha kaan bhogaanupa lapsyathe.
“I do not know whether my citizens are being properly looked after by my servants who are with bad character. Nor do I know how my chief of elephant brigade who is a exuberant and heroic fares in the hand of my enemies.”
14. Yea Mamanugatha nithyam prasada dhana bhojanai
Anuvrathim Druvam they kurvanthyanya mahi brutham.
“It is definite that those who lived out of recognition, wealth and food given by me, are living by serving other kings.”
15. Asmyagwaya Seelasthai kurvathbhi sathatham vayam,
Sanchitha sothi dukhena kshayam koso gamishyathi
Ethachanyacha sathatham Chinthayamasa Parthiva.
“Because those spendthrifts because of their bad habits always spend, my treasury would become soon empty. ” thus worried the king.
16. Thathra viprasramaabhyase Vaisyamekham dadarsa sa,
Sa prashtasthena kasthwam bho hethuschagamanethra ka.
That king saw near the sage’s hermitage a Vaisya(One who belongs to the community of business people) and asked him, “Who are you? And why have you come here?”
17. Sasoka iva kasmathwam durmana iva lakshyase.,
Ityakarnya vachasthasya bhoopathe pranayo ditham.
18. Prathyuvacha sa tham vaisya prasrayavanatho nrupam.
To the loving question by the king as to why he was sad and appeared with a disturbed mind, that Vysya with humility told the king.
19. Vaisyo Uvacha:-
Samadhirnama Vysyo Aham uthpanno dhaninam kule,
Puthra dharairnirasthascha dhanalobhada sadhubhi,
Viheenaswajanairdharai puthrairadhaya me dhanam
20. Vanambhyagadho dukhee nirasthaschapthabandhbhi.
“I am Vysya called Samadhi, born in a rich family. Because of intense desire for money, I was robbed of all my wealth and driven out by my wives and sons who were of bad character. Thus I, without my wives sons and forsaken by my intimate friends, have arrived in this forest with intense sorrow. ”
21. Pravruthim swajanacha dharanam chaathra samsthitha,
Kim nu thesham gruhe, ksemakshemam kim nu sampratham,
22. Kadam they kim nu sad vrutha durvrutha kim ne mey sutha.
“I do not know sitting here, about the well being of my sons, wives and other relatives. I do not know whether they are happy or suffering in their homes. I do not know whether my sons are well behaved or of bad character. ”
23. Rajo Uvacha
Yair nirastho Bhavan Lubhdhair puthra dharadhibhir dhanai,
Theshu kim bhavatha snehamanubhadnadhi manasam.
The king told:-
“You have been driven out by your sons and wives due to their intense longing for money. Why is it your mind still loves them?”
24. . Vysya Uvacha
Evaethadyadha praha bhavanasmadgatham vacha,
Kim karomi na bhadnathi mama nishtooratham mana.
“Whatever has been told by you are the truth but somehow my mind does not take recourse to cruel hatred.”
25. Yai ssandhyajya pithru sneham dhanalubdhair nirakruthai,
Pathi swajana hardamcha hardhi theshweva me mana.
My mind still has love for those, who have driven me out forsaking love towards father, love towards husband and love towards ones own people.
26. Kimethannabhi janami jananabhi maha mathe,
Yath prema pravanam chitham viguneshwabhi bandhushu.
Hey great soul, though I am intelligent, my mind has love towards those relations who are not good. I am not able to understand why.
27. Tesham kruthe mey niswaso daurmanasyam na jayathe,
Karomi kim yanna manastheshwa preethishu nishtooram.
Because of them I have hard breath and deep sorrow but my mind is not cruel on them who do not have love for me.
28. Markandeya Uvacha:-
Tathasthou sahiothou vipra, tham muneem samupasthithou,
Samdhir nama vysyo asou sa cha parthiva sathama.
Hey Brahmin, after that the Vysya called Samadhi and that great king joined together and went near that sage.
29. Kruthwa thu thou yadha nyayam yadarham thena samvidham,
Upavishtou kadha kaschit chakrathu r vysya parthivou.
The Vysya and the king after holding conversation with the sage according to etiquette told him some news and stories.
30. Rajo Uvacha
Bhagavatswamaham prashtu michakyam vadasya that,
Dukhaya yanme manasa swa chitthaaya thathaam vinaa.
Hey great soul, I want to ask you a question. Why is it that my mind is not under my control? Why does it create sorrow for me? Please tell me this secret.
31. Mamathwam gatha rajhyasya rajayangeshwakhilesh bhi,
Janathophi yadagnasya kimethan muni sathama.
Hey great sage, though I am wise, I who have lost my kingdom feel attached to my kingdom. Why is this happening?
32. Ayamcha nikrutha puthrai dharair bruthyai sthadhoth jaditha,
Swajanena cha samthyakthastheshu hardhee thadhaapyathi.
This Vysya who has been forsaken by his children, wives servants and his own people is also feeling very much attached to them.
33. Eva mesha thadahamcha dwapyathyantha dukhithou,
Dushta doshepi vishaye mamathwakrushta manasa
Though he and myself, in spite of our finding bad qualities in a matter, our mind is being attracted by that matter and both of us are becoming sad.
34. Thal kimethan maha bhaga, yan moha gnaninorapi,
mamaasya cha bhavtheysha vivekandhasya moodatha.
Hey great wise soul, why is it that this foolish quality of an unwise individual has come to him and me who both are wise people.
35. Rishir Uvacha:-
Gnanamasthi samasthasya janthor vishaya gochare,
Vishayascha Maha bhaga, yathi chaivam prudhak prudhak.
The sage told:-
All animals born in the world have knowledge of present activity. But great soul, this knowledge is of different types.
36. Divandha pranina kechith rathravandha sthadapare,
Kechi diva thadha rathrou pranina sthulya drushtaya.
Some animals are blind during day, some blind during night but there are also animals that can see equally both in day and night.
(The sage says that just because some are blind at night or day or not blind either at night or day, their passion and desire does not change. )
37. Gnanino manuja sathyam kinnathe nahi kevalam,
Yatho hi gnanina sarve pasu pakshi mrugadhaya.
It is truth that men are wise but they are not the only wise ones.. Even cow, birds and wild animals are also wise.
(The sage tries to tell that wisdom is always mixed with wrong knowledge or ignorance. This is true in all cases including man)
38. Gnanancha than manushyanam yathesham mruga pakshinaam,
Manushyanancha yathesham thulyamanya thadho bhayo.
Whatever wisdom an animal or bird has, that wisdom man also has. Similarly whatever special knowledge man has for his needs, the bird and animal also have just sufficient to their needs. Except this special knowledge other knowledge (about food, sleep and making love) is same for man and animals and birds.
39. Gnaneapi sathi pasyaithan pathangamchaava changushu,
Kana moksha druthan mohad peedyamannanapi Kshudha
Though they know that their hunger will be quenched only if they eat and though they suffer due to hunger, observe that the birds due to their attachment keep pieces of food on the beaks for their little ones
40. Manushya manuja vyagra, saabilaaksha suthaan prathi,
Lobhaath pratyupakaraya nanvethaan kim na pasyasi.
Hey lion among men, Man shows affection to their sons with a hope that they would help them in their need. But are you not seeing these birds?
(The sage points out that birds do this action without any expectation. )
41. Thadapi mamathaavarthe mohagarthe nipaathitha,
Mahamaya prabhavena samsara sthidhikarrina.
In spite of that due to the power of the great enchantress, man is pushed in to the whirlpool of attachment and the pit of affection and observes the rules of human life.
42. Thannathra vismaya karyo yoga nidhra Jagatpathe,
mahamaya harescaithathaya sammohyathe jagat.
The great enchantress is but the yogic sleep of Vishnu, the lord of the universe. That enchantress enchants the entire world and so you need not wonder about your reaction.
(Devas do not sleep but take away their senses from happenings and forget about the world. This is the yogic sleep. )
43. Jnaneenam aapi chethamsi devi bhagawathi hi sa,
Baladakrushya mohaya mahamaya prayachadhi.
That famous lady Maha Maya (great enchantress) who is personification of all riches, draws the minds of even those who have special knowledge and make them behave with baser instinct of affection.
(When she can draw the instincts of those blessed with special knowledge, she can do it easily in case of people like you. )
44. Thaya visrujyathe viswam trilokyam sa characharam,
Saisha prasanna varada nrunaam bhavathi mukthaye.
She creates the three worlds with its movable and immovable things and though she is the cause of this attachment if she becomes pleased she grants salvation to human beings.
45. Saa vidhya parama mukther hethu bhootha sanathani,
Samsara bandha hethuscha saiva sarveshwareshwari.
She is the greatest knowledge, which is the cause of salvation, and she also is the ignorance that leads to attachment with the mundane world. Also she is the goddess of all gods.
Bhagawan kaa hi saa devi, mahamayethi yaam bhavan,
Braveethi kadamuthpanna saa karmasyasscha kim dwija.
The king told:-
Hey Godly person, who is this holy lady who was mentioned by you as the Great enchantress? Where from was she born? Hey twice born, what are her duties?
47. Yath prabhava cha saa devi yath swaroopa yaduthbhava,
Thath sarvam srothumichami twatho Braavidhamvara.
Hey one of the chiefs among those who know Brhama(Ultimate truth), what are the powers of that holy lady, how does she look like and wherefrom was she born? Be pleased to tell me all these.
48. Rishir Uvacha:-
Nithyaiva saa Jagat moorthisthaya sarvamidham thatham,
Thadapi that Samudpathir bahudha sruyatham mama.
The sage told:-
That holy lady who is of the form of the universe is permanent and she has created this entire world. But be pleased to hear from me how she took form in several cases.
49. Devaanam karya sidhyartham Aavirbhavathi saa yadha,
Uthpannethi thada loke saa nithyaapyabhidheeyathe.
Though that holy lady exists permanently, whenever she appears in the world for helping the Devas, it is told that she was born at that time.
50. Yoganidhraam Yada Vishnur jagathyakaarnavikruthe,
Aastheerya seshamabhajath kalpanthe bhagwan Prabhu
51. Thadha dwavasuraou ghorou vikhyatho Madhu Kaidabhou,
Vishnu karna maloth bhoothou hanthum brahmanamudhyathou.
When the great Lord Vishnu entered in to his yogic slumber on the bed of Sesha, the great snake which was lying over the single ocean (the earth and sea transformed thus at the end of the world (deluge)), out of the ear wax of Vishnu two famous and terrible Asuras called Madhu and Kaidabha rose with an intention of troubling Brahma.
(Sesha also indicates that it was the only thing remaining after the deluge. )
52. Drushtwa Thavasurou Chogrou prasuptham cha Janardhanam,
Thushtava yoganidhram thamekagra Hrudya Sthitha
53. Vibhodhanarthaya Harer hari nethra kruthalayam
Visweswareem Jagad dathreem Sthithi Samhara karineem
54. Nidhram Bhagawathim Vishnor athulam Thejasa Prabhu
That Lord Brahma who was the lord of all men sitting on the lotus flower originating from the belly of Vishnu seeing those two Rakshasas and also seeing that lord Vishnu was in deep yogic slumber prayed that “Yoga Nidhra,” who is omnipresent, who creates, looks after and destroys people, who is incomparable and who lives within the eyes of Vishnu, with an intention of waking up Vishnu.
55. Brahma Uvacha:-
Twam Swaha, twam Swadha, Twam hi Vashatkara swarathmika,
Sudha Twam Akshare Nithya, tridhamathrathmika sthidha.
You are one who satisfies Gods (Swaha is also the name of the wife of fire God), You are one who satisfies our manes, (swadha is the food of manes) You are the sound Vashat (the sound of fire sacrifice), you are the personification of heaven, you are Amrutha (Nectar) and you are half syllable of the three letters AA, UU and MA.
56. Ardha Mathra Sthitha, Nithya, Yanucharya, viseshatha,
Twameva Saa, thwam Savithree, Twam Devi, janani para,
You live in the half syllable “OM”, you are ever living, specially you are the one whose name cannot be told, You are Gayathri, and holy lady, you are the great mother of us all.
57. Twayaithat Dharyathe Viswam, twaithat srujyathe Jagat,
Twaiythat palyathe Devi, twamatsyanthe cha sarvadha.
Hey holy Goddess, this universe is created by you, this universe is looked after by you, and at the end you destroy this universe and thus this world is carried by you again and again.
58. Visrushtou Srushti roopa thwam, Sthithiroopa cha palane,
Thadha samhruthiroopanthe Jagathosya Jagan maye.
You are the all pervasive in this universe, you are the creator in creating the universe, you are the administrator in looking after the universe and you are the personification of the destruction at the end.
59. Maha Vidhya, Maha Maya, Maha Medha, Maha Smruthi,
Maha moha cha Bhavathi Mahadevi Mahasuri.
You are the great knowledge, you are the great enchantress, and you are the great power of knowing, you are the great knowledge of Vedas, you are the great passion, you are the great goddess and you are the great power behind Gods.
60. Prakruthi sthwam, hi sarvasya gunathraya vibhavani,
Kala rathrir Maha Rathrir Moha Rathrischa Dharuna.
You are mother nature which differentiates between the three qualities of Sathwa(spiritual),, Rajasa(materialistic) and Thamo(baser) instincts, you are the final night of deluge, you are the last night of Brahma, and You are the base darkness which makes one do that action which should not be done,
61. Thwam Srees thwam easwari, thwam hree sthwam budhir bhoda lakshana,
Lajja pushtisthadha thushtisthwam santhi kshanthireva cha.
You are Goddess Lakshmi, you are the wife of Lord Shiva, you are shyness, you are the intellect helping to take definite decision, you are the intellect which makes us hesitate to take decisions, and similarly you are happiness, solace and patience.
62. Gadgini, Soolni, Ghora, Gadhini, Chakrini, Thadha,
Sankhini, Chapini, bhanabhoosundi, parigayudha.
You are one with sword, you are one with spear, you are one who carries a head in one hand, you are one with mace, you are one with a wheel, you are one with a conch, you are one with a bow and similarly you are one with arrow, with shield and with Bhoosundi.
(This indicates that she has ten hands. )
63. Sowmya sowmyathara sesha Sowmyestha Athisundari,
Paraparaanaam parama thwameva parameshwari.
You are one with face full of grace and happiness, you are one with more patience, you are the most pretty among all pretty things, and you are greater than all gods are and you are the wife of Lord Shiva.
64. Yacha kinchith kwachidvasthu sadasadwaakhilaathmikhe,
Tasya sarvasya yaa shakthi sa twam kim sthuyase thada.
Soul of all that is in this world, I am praying to you because you are the power behind even the smallest living and thing without life.
65. Yayaa twayaa Jagat srushta jagat pathathi yo jagat,
Sopi nidhravasam neetha kasthwam sthothumiheswara.
You have made that Lord Vishnu who creates, looks after and destroy, asleep. Because of that who among this world capable of praying you?
66. Vishnu sareeragrahana maha meesana eva cha,
Kaarithastheyatho athasthwam ka sthothum sakthiman bhaveth.
You have taken over the body of Lord Vishnu Lord Rudra and me. Because of this who in this world would become capable of praying you?
67. Saa twamitham prabhavai swairudharai devi, samsthutha
Mohayaithou duradarshavasurou madhu kaidabhou.
Being thus prayed with all your great qualities, please make the bad Asuras viz. Madhu and Kaidhabha in to senseless beings.
68. Prabhodamcha Jagat Swami niyatham achyutho laghu
Bhodascha kriyathamasya hanthumethou mahasurou.
Lei Achyutha the lord of all the world wake up quickly. He also should be given the enthusiasm and strength of wisdom to kill these great Asuras.
69. Rishir Uvacha:-
Evam sthutha thada devi thamasi thathra Vedasa,
Nethrasya Nasika Bahu hrudayebhya sthudhorasa.
70. Nirgamya darsane thasthou Brahamno avyaktha janmana.
The sage told:-
Thus being praised and prayed By Brahma sitting on the lotus originating from Vishnu’s belly, that holy lady who is the soul of sleep and who has baser qualities came before Brahma from the eyes, face, nose, hands, heart and the soul of Vishnu for the sake of waking up Vishnu and for killing Madhu and Kaidaba.
71. Ekarnave ahisayanathatha thatha sa daruse cha thou,
Madhu kaidabhou durathmanava athi veerya parakramaou.
72. Krodha Raktha Kshanou hanthum brahmanam janithodhyamou.
Woken (Freed) by her that Lord of the Universe Vishnu got up from the bed of serpent floating on the unified sea. Afterwards he saw the very valorous and cruel brained Madhu and Kaidaba who were having very red eyes due to extreme anger and who were intent on killing Brahma.
(Though Devi as the great enchantress has externally baser qualities, in the inside she is filled with good qualities, She came out of Lord Vishnu with this external appearance of baser qualities. The Thanthric literature ascribes the killing of Madhu and Kaidabha to her instead of Vishnu. Since she had to do wrestling with these two Rakshasas,she took the form of Vishnu, according to them. )
73. Samuthaya thathasthabhyam yuyudhe bhagawan hari,
Pancha varsha sahasrani bahu praharano vibhu.
Afterwards that God Vishnu who was spread everywhere got up and fought using bare hands with Madhu and Kaidabha for five thousand years.
(They were not getting tired even after fighting 500 years because they had taken a boon that they will die only according to their own will. At the end Lord Vishnu offered them any boon that they want. -Some texts have two slokas carrying the above meaning)
74. Thavapyathi balonmathou maha maya vimohithou,
Ukthavanthou varosmatho vryathamithi kesavam.
Those very strong Madhu and Kaidabha loosing their senses (by not loosing the war) and being enchanted by the Goddess who was the great enchantress, told Vishnu that they both are offering him a boon.
75. Sri Baghwan Uvacha
Bhavethamadhya me thushtou mama vadhyavubhavapi,
Kimanyena varenathra ethavadhi vrutham maya
The great God told:-
If both of you are happy you should consent to be killed by me. What is the use of any other boon? I want only that boon.
76. Rishir Uvacha:-
Vanchithabhyamithi thada sarvamapomayam Jagath,
Vilokya thabhyam gadhitho Bhagwan Kamalekshana.
Avaam jahi na ya throrvi salilena pariplutha.
The sage told:-
Thus deceived by Lord Vishnu who had lotus eyes and seeing that the whole world was full of water, they requested him to kill them in a place on earth, which was free of water.
77. Thadethyukthyo bhagawatha sanka chakra gadhabrudha,
Kruthva chakrena vay chinne jagane sirasi thayo.
He told, “let it be like that” and their heads were kept on his lap and were cut by the holy wheel by the Lord who carries a conch, holy wheel and mace.
(There is a story that Lord Vishnu created the earth out of the fat (Medhas) of Madhu and Kaidabha and that is why one of the synonyms of earth in Sanskrit is Medhas. There is also a story that Lord Vishnu did penance for the sin of killing Madhu and Kaidabha and consecrated two Shiva Lingas called Mahukeswara and Kaidabheswara in the shore of the river varadha. Please also note that sea water in deluge cannot raise above the feet of Lord Vishnu. )
78. Evam esha samuthpanna brahmana samsthutha swayam,
Prabhavamasya devyasthu bhooya srunu vadhami they.
Thus this great enchantress rose up as a result of great prayer of Brahma. I would further tell you about the greatness of this Goddess.
Ithi Sree Markandeya purane Savarnike manwathare,
Devi Mahatmye Madhu Kaidabha Vadho Nama
This is the first chapter in Devi Mahatmya dealing with the killing of Madhu and Kaidabha Occurring the Savarnika period of Markandeya Purana.
Ramachanderam Nadisan and Dyarne Ward